Pakistan is highly dependent on fossil fuels like natural gas, diesel, oil and furnace oil for electricity generation. Energy sector in Pakistan is the main contributor of Green House Gas (HGH) emissions, contributing more than 80% of the total CO2 emission in the country. The sources of these emissions are thermal power plants in public & private sector and industries with captive power plants using fossil fuels. The depleting forests due to use of fire wood in rural, urban and hilly areas are also sources of Climate Change and Global Warming.
The other sources of GHG emissions are transport sector, industrial sector, agriculture sector, using diesel oil for operating vehicles, water pumping, operating industrial & agriculture machinery. Commercial, public and domestic sectors using natural gas and oil for electricity generation using small generators space heating, cooling (HVAC) and water heating.
The Climate Change is causing rapid recession of Himalayan glaciers threatening water inflows into the Indus River System, and rise in snow line, increasing floods and droughts conditions in arid and semi-arid regions, and the change in rainfall patterns leading to reduction in agriculture productivity and power generation.
Government of KPK province have started a program to install 300 micro hydro power projects in the hilly areas at different locations to provide electricity in the off grid & remote areas.Pakistan’s total GHG emissions amount to 309 million M. Tones of Co2 equivalent, comprising about 54% Co2, 36% Methane, 9% Nitrous oxide and 1% other emissions.
Government of Pakistan & Provincial Governments and private sector are promoting coal based power plants of more than 15000 MW capacities which will greatly add to Green House Gas emissions, increasing Climate Change & Global Warming. The consumption of coal in all the planned power plants has been estimated at 60 Million tons per annum to produce 15,000 MW electricity which would further add to 200,000 tons of CO2 in the atmosphere of Pakistan, increasing Climate Change & Global Warming.
Energy Foundation have proposed that the use of clean renewable energy especially, solar, hydropower & geothermal energy in the Northern Areas of Gilgit, Baltistan & Kashmir areas will save the use of fossil fuels and forest wood which are major source of Climate Change & Global Warming in the Himalayan region.
Energy Foundation has made a preliminary assessment of Geothermal energy resources available in all the provinces of Pakistan, for power generation, cooling, heating and direct use applications.
The use of clean renewable energy resources including geothermal energy in Pakistan could replace the thermal power plants reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels like, furnace oil, diesel oil, gasoline/ Petrol, & coal which are major contributors of Green House Gas emissions.